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8月新闻热词汇总

8月,第18届亚运会在印尼雅加达举行,中国队位列金牌榜和奖牌榜榜首,电竞队获得表演赛2金1银的成绩;第19届亚运会会徽“潮涌”出炉;滴滴司机被曝用“外挂”抬高车费,顺风车再出女性乘客遇害事件,全国范围无限期下线;疫苗续种补种措施发布;开学前各种作业代写服务火爆;嫦娥四号月球车全球征名;网友纷纷自称“精芬”;影视机构联合抵制高价片酬;民法典草案和个税草案引发公众关注。

胡同游 hutong tourism

Companies that conduct tours of Beijing's classic alleys, or hutong, should only be allowed to take groups to lanes that display traditional culture or contain historical sites, according to a draft guideline on hutong tourism from the city government.
根据北京市政府发布的《胡同游服务规范(征求意见稿)》,提供北京胡同游的旅行社应只带团游览展示传统文化或保有历史遗迹的胡同。

北京市旅游委近日在其官网发布了"关于征求北京市地方标准《胡同游服务规范》意见的通知",并向社会开展为期一个月的意见征求(solicitation of opinions)。征求意见稿规范了"胡同游(hutong tourism)"的定义,即以北京城市特有的具有传统文化、风俗人情(folk customs)、历史风貌的胡同(一条或若干条胡同组成的街区)为载体,向游客提供吃、住、行、游、购、娱和文化展示(cultural display)服务的特色游览业态。

在设施方面,胡同游客接待量应与经营总体规模相匹配(hutong should not be able to accept more people than they can handle);夜间营业的胡同,公共场地应有充足的灯光照明和应急照明设施(hutong that are open during the night should be equipped with sufficient lights and emergency power supplies in public areas);胡同应有不少于2个主要出入口(each hutong should have at least two entry or exit points)。

在交通方面,胡同长度超过1000米的,宜提供环保型代步工具(eco-friendly transportation methods);应设置盲道、无障碍设施(barrier-free facilities);胡同主要出入口附近宜设置机动车和非机动车停车场地 (parking for cars and non-motor vehicles should be placed at main entrances)。

餐饮方面,要求胡同内的餐饮店应布局合理,就餐环境安静、整洁、无异味;各种饮食、菜品应明码标价(mark the price clearly);厨房食品加工、存放,冷热、生熟、荤素分开,无交叉污染(cross-contamination);胡同内应有北京特色、品牌、符合属地民族生活习惯的餐饮店。

意见稿还要求胡同内应设置公共卫生间(public toilet),宜配置洁手设备、洗手液和纸张用品,胡同商户卫生间应向游客免费开放使用(all the toilets in businesses along the hutong should be open to tourists for free);胡同游服务人员宜提供一种以上外语服务(provide services in more than one foreign language);此外,还要求胡同游的各类活动不应影响周边居民的正常生活(disturb daily life of residents living nearby)。

电子皮肤 electronic skin

Chinese scientists have developed a graphene-based tattoo-like electronic skin that could function as a wearable device to monitor a person's health.
我国科学家研制了一种石墨烯纹身式电子皮肤,可用作穿戴设备来监测健康状况。

电子皮肤(electronic skin)是一种重要的生物医学传感器(biomedical sensor),要求器件拥有好的柔韧性和可伸缩性、高灵敏度(high sensitivity)、好的贴合度和舒适度。石墨烯(graphene)由于其出色的导电性和柔韧性(excellent conductivity and flexibility),是电子皮肤的理想材料。

通过将电子皮肤贴附在口罩、手腕、喉咙、人中等多个位置分别实现对呼吸、心跳、语音(breathing, heartbeat and voice)等人体信号的测量。该项技术灵敏度更高,能耐受更高温度(withstand high temperature),而且衬底超薄,没有穿戴不适感。

除了测量皮肤表面的拉伸与压缩,这种石墨烯的纹身还可以利用牺牲层工艺转移到多种衬底上(the electronic skin is also transferable to other substrates),例如树叶,丝绸等等。

知识产权 intellectual property

China is looking to establish a technical support system to detect, monitor and track evidence of intellectual property (IP) infringement and counterfeiting by 2020.
我国计划到2020年,基本建成知识产权侵权假冒线索在线识别、实时监测、源头追溯的技术支撑体系。

《方案》将“互联网+(Internet Plus)”作为深化知识产权保护方式改革的重要手段,创新执法指导和管理机制,发挥大数据(big data)、人工智能(artificial intelligence)等信息技术在知识产权侵权假冒的在线识别、实时监测、源头追溯中的作用,最大程度减少对企业正常生产经营行为的影响。

《方案》提出的主要任务包括:

建立技术支撑体系(technical support system)

1.建设基础数据库(basic databases)。提取知识产权授权文件的核心信息(core information of IP authorization files),构建知识产权概要数据库。

2.建设侵权假冒线索智能检测系统( intelligent detection system to identify and track evidence of IP infringement and counterfeiting)。

3.实现智能检测系统与相关系统的对接(The intelligent detection system will be connected to other management systems)。

建立运行机制(operation mechanisms)

1.建立侵权假冒线索检测启动与推送机制(initiation and notification mechanism of detecting evidence of IP infringement and counterfeiting)。

2.建立智能检测与人工判断衔接机制(connecting mechanism of intelligent detection and manual identification)。

3.建立涉外侵权假冒相关信息分析处理机制(mechanism of cross-border IP infringement and counterfeiting information analysis)。

4.推进建立标识电子化管理机制(management of digitalized tags)。

推进试点工作(pilot operation)

选择信息易追溯、社会关注度高的电子商务(e-commerce)、大型展会(large-scale exhibitions)、进出口(import and export)等重点领域、重点环节,作为试点工作的突破口,探索推进“互联网+”知识产权保护工作。

第19届亚运会会徽 the emblem for the 19th Asian Games Hangzhou 2022

Called "Surging Tides", the emblem consists of six elements: a Chinese fan, the Qiantang River, a tidal bore, a running track, the Internet icon and the glowing red sun of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA). Below the motif is the lettering denoting the Host City and the year of the Asian Games.
“潮涌”的主体图形由扇面、钱塘江、钱江潮头、赛道、互联网符号及象征亚奥理事会的太阳图形六个元素组成。下方是主办城市名称与举办年份的印鉴。

据杭州亚组委方面介绍,扇面造型反映江南人文意蕴(the cultural heritage unique to the southern regions of the Yangtze River),赛道代表体育竞技(sports competitions),互联网符号契合杭州城市特色,太阳图形是亚奥理事会的象征符号。

钱塘江和钱江潮头是会徽的形象核心(the core elements of the Emblem),绿水青山展示了浙江杭州山水城市(a city of natural landscapes)的自然特质,江潮奔涌表达了浙江儿女勇立潮头的精神气质。

整个会徽形象象征着新时代中国特色社会主义大潮的涌动和发展(the great cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era is gathering greater momentum),也象征亚奥理事会大家庭团结携手,紧密相拥,永远向前(the unity of the OCA Family, marching forward hand in hand)。

疫苗补种 vaccine reinoculation

According to the plan, those who have received the vaccines but have not gone through the entire inoculation procedure can continue to receive valid vaccines from other companies for free at vaccination institutions to complete the procedure.
方案指出,接种过长春长生狂犬病疫苗且尚未完成接种程序者,接种单位免费续种其他公司合格疫苗。

Those who have completed the procedure with the vaccines in question and still want reinoculation can get it for free after being informed by vaccination institutions about prevention and control, the functions of the vaccines and post-inoculation tips.
已完成接种程序者,如受种者有补种意愿,接种单位在告知防控知识、疫苗的保护作用、接种后注意事项等内容后,可免费补种。

这里的inoculation就是“接种”,而“续种”可以用follow-up inoculation表示,“补种”则用reinoculation表达。

方案指出,根据世界卫生组织2018年4月的有关报告,狂犬病潜伏期(the incubation period of rabies)通常为1-3个月,罕有超过1年。为保障受种者健康,对接种时间不满1年的受种者,接种单位提供跟踪观察和咨询服务(tracking, observation and advisory services)。接种时间1年以上的,如发生异常情况(abnormalities),卫生健康部门继续受理。

方案明确,接种单位设置醒目标识,安排有经验的医务人员提供服务,向社会公开联系方式(make contact information public)。县级以上地方卫生健康部门要各确定1家医疗机构,作为辖区内进一步临床观察的定点医疗机构(designated medical institution)。国家级、省级和地市级组建专家组(teams of experts),包括临床(clinical studies)、疾病预防控制(disease prevention and control)以及管理领域等专家,指导做好相关服务。

精芬 spiritually Finnish

The term “jingfen” (精芬), or “spiritually Finnish”, is inspired by a comic from Finland called “Finnish Nightmares,” starring a cartoon figure named Matti who prefers minimal contact and avoids social situations.
“精芬”这个词源自于芬兰的一个插画绘本《芬兰人的噩梦》,里面的主人公马蒂不喜欢跟人接触,尽量避免社交。

His creator Karoliina Korhonen describes Matti as “a stereotypical Finn who appreciates peace, quiet and personal space. Matti tries his best to do unto others as he wishes to be done unto him: to give space, be polite and not bother with unnecessary chit chat.”
该绘本的作者卡罗丽娜·克罗恩对马蒂的描述是:一个典型的芬兰人,喜欢平静、安静,享受个人空间。马蒂努力践行己之所欲亦施于人的待人之道:给足空间,有礼貌,避免无意义的闲谈。

He’s the kind of perpetually uncomfortable character who hides in his apartment when a neighbor is out in the hall. If someone takes a vacant seat next to Matti, he wants to disappear. He hates being singled out, even for praise, avoids talking to salespeople, and can’t stand working in pairs.
他是一个时时处处都觉得不自在的人,有邻居在走廊的时候,他就躲在屋里;如果有人坐了他旁边的空座,他会想要从那里消失;他不喜欢被特别对待,哪怕是表扬也不行;他避免跟销售人员对话;无法忍受跟别人搭档工作。

芬兰人热情、好客,对人真诚,又特别注重个人空间。哪怕是外向的芬兰人在我们看来也可能是内向的。芬兰人有句自嘲的话是这样说的:

“An introverted Finn looks at his shoes when talking to you; an extroverted Finn looks at your shoes.”
内向的芬兰人跟你说话的时候看着自己的鞋子,外向的芬兰人跟你说话的时候看着你的鞋子。

非法代写服务 illegal ghostwriting services

As the end of the summer holiday approaches, Chinese elementary and junior high school students increasingly find themselves bogged down with too many school assignments. However, emerging illegal ghostwriting services offered on different online platforms seem like a great "help" to them.
随着暑假接近尾声,我国中小学生越来越觉得自己深陷在堆积如山的学校作业中。然而,各大网络平台提供的新兴非法代写服务对他们来说似乎"大有帮助"。

近年来,我国教育相关部门响应国家"减负(burden alleviation)"号召,努力减少学生的家庭作业(try to cut back on homework for students),但越来越多的家长却往往利用假期等课余时间安排孩子上课外辅导班(parents tend to arrange their children's spare time, including vacations, for extracurricular classes)。学生显然无法负荷学校和补习班两方面的作业(cannot bear the homework form by both the school and the cram school),于是为不法写手和商贩提供了商机(business opportunity)。

有报道称,代写行业的服务链(the chain of the ghostwriting industry)是"联系客服(contact customer service)——告知要求(tell the requirements)——确定价格(set the price)——邮寄作业(mail the notebook)——支付议价(pay the agreed fee)——收到成品(get the returned manuscript)"。国内最大电商平台(e-commerce platform)淘宝网上有不少提供代写服务的网店。微博等社交媒体平台上也能看到代写广告。据报道,大学生是代写主力军(the main force of the ghostwriters)。他们暑期时间充裕,加上渴望挣零花钱(desire to earn pocket money),所以乐于"帮忙"。

外挂插件 cheating plug-in

By using the plug-ins, drivers can change the vehicles' normal orientations and driving courses on the Didi Chuxing app, according to the report.
据报道,司机可以利用“外挂”插件改变滴滴出行软件上显示的车辆导航和行程路线。

Plug-in,即“插件”,原意是指在计算机系统中安装以实现额外功能的软件,春运期间出现的“抢票软件”就算一种plug-in。这里所说的“外挂”插件,是司机通过作弊的方式获得高额的车费回报,可以用cheating plug-in来表达。网络游戏中用来作弊的“外挂程序”则叫做tag-on service,指专门针对一个或多个网络游戏,通过改变网络游戏软件的部分程序制作而成的作弊程序(cheating program)。

报道指出,除了在行驶过程中利用插件抬高车费,这款“外挂”还能帮助司机抢单。

Another one of the plug-in's "magical" functions allows Didi drivers to filter orders by specific departures or destinations, letting them target long-distance routes, easily giving the Didi driver an opportunity to double more expensive rides.
这款插件的另一个“神奇”功能是可以让司机通过设定具体的出发或目的地对订单进行筛选,获得长途行程的订单,使司机有更多针对大额车费加倍获利的机会。

对此,滴滴出行方面表示,公司已经监控到该作弊行为,平台上线了反作弊策略来识别这类作弊司机(counter-measure system for detecting the app),一旦确认立即封号处理(block any accounts identified to be using the plug-in),并依据作弊订单金额进行罚款。

世界灌溉工程遗产 world's Heritage Irrigation Structures

Four ancient irrigation sites from China have been inscribed world's Heritage Irrigation Structures: the Dujiangyan irrigation system, the Lingqu Canal, the Jiang-Xi Dam and the Changqu Canal.
中国的都江堰、灵渠、姜席堰和长渠4个项目均被列为世界灌溉工程遗产。

世界灌溉工程遗产(world's Heritage Irrigation Structures)是专业型世界遗产,由国际灌排委员会(the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage)于2014年设立,目的为保护、挖掘和推广具有历史价值的可持续灌溉工程(sustainable irrigation structures)及其科学经验,每年申报评选公布一批。

申报世界灌溉遗产的工程需符合以下条件:

The structure shall be more than 100 years old;
工程至少有100年历史;

The structures shall fall under one of the following categories:dams (operational largely for irrigation purpose),water storage structures such as tanks,barrages and other water diversion structures,canal Systems, old waterwheels,old shadouf, etc.
工程需属于以下类别:主要以灌溉为目的的堰(坝),水库等用于储水的工程,水坝等引水工程,水渠类工程,老式水车,老式橘槔(旧时的一种灌溉装置)等。

2019财年国防授权法案 the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019

美国总统特朗普13日在纽约州一处军事基地签署国会参议院和众议院通过的2019财年国防授权法案(the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019)。

The act includes clauses such as directing a whole-of-government strategy on China and submitting the assessment and plan on strengthening Taiwan's force readiness.
该法案包含要求制定“全政府对华战略”、就加强台军战备提交评估和计划等条款。

外交部发言人陆慷14日在答问时说,中方对美方不顾中方坚决反对执意通过并签署“2019财年国防授权法案”表示强烈不满,敦促美方摒弃冷战思维和零和博弈理念(to abandon its Cold War thinking and zero-sum mindset),正确客观看待中国和中美关系,恪守一个中国原则和中美三个联合公报规定(to uphold the one-China policy and joint communiques made by both countries),不得实施有关涉华消极条款。

国防部新闻发言人吴谦14日也就美方签署“2019财年国防授权法案”发表谈话。吴谦说,

该法案涉华内容充斥冷战思维,渲染中美对抗,干涉中国内政,违反一个中国原则和中美三个联合公报规定。
The China-related contents in that act are filled with a cold-war mentality, advocating confrontations between the two countries and interfering with China's internal affairs.The related contents are violations to the one-China principle and the stipulations in the three joint communiques between China and the United States.

中国军队对此坚决反对,并已向美方提出严正交涉。
Chinese armed forces firmly oppose the contents and have lodged solemn representations with the US side.

台湾是中国的一部分。台湾问题事关中国主权和领土完整,是中美关系中最重要、最敏感的核心问题。
Taiwan is a part of China and the Taiwan issue, concerning China's sovereignty and territorial integrity, is the most important and sensitive issue in China-US relations.

我们坚决反对任何国家与台湾开展任何形式的官方往来和军事联系,这一立场坚定明确。我们绝不允许任何人、在任何时候、以任何形式把台湾从中国分裂出去。
Wu reiterated the resolute opposition to any form of official or military contact between any country and Taiwan, and stressed that "We will never allow anyone, at any time or in any form, to separate Taiwan from China."

我们敦促美方恪守在台湾问题上向中方作出的承诺,恪守一个中国原则和中美三个联合公报规定,慎重处理涉台问题,以免损害中美两国两军关系和台海和平稳定。
Wu called on the United States to adhere to the one-China principle and the stipulations in the three joint communiques between China and the United States, and handle Taiwan-related issues prudently, so as to avoid damaging China-US relations, the military ties or the peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait.

国台办发言人马晓光14日表示,

我们坚决反对美方与台湾地区进行任何形式的官方往来和军事联系,坚决反对美对台售武。
We resolutely oppose any form of official or military contact between the United States and Taiwan, including US arms sales to Taiwan.

我们敦促美方不得实施上述法案涉台消极条款,避免对中美关系大局和台海和平稳定造成损害。
The spokesperson urged the United States not to implement the Taiwan-related clauses so as to avoid damaging China-US relations and peace and stability in the Taiwan Strait.

我们也正告民进党当局,挟洋自重必将损害台湾民众的利益。
We also sternly warn the Democratic Progressive Party administration that relying on foreigners to build yourself up will damage the interests of Taiwan residents.

粤港澳大湾区 the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area

Development of the Greater Bay Area should uphold "one country, two systems" and strictly adhere to the national Constitution and the Basic Law-the constitutional documents of the Hong Kong and Macao SARs. Implementation of the Bay Area development must stay committed to the basis of "one country", and leverage well the benefits of "two systems", Han said.
韩正表示,推进大湾区建设,必须在“一国两制”框架内严格依照宪法和基本法办事,坚守“一国”之本,善用“两制”之利。

粤港澳大湾区(the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area)是指由香港、澳门两个特别行政区和广东省的广州、深圳、珠海、佛山、中山、东莞、肇庆、江门、惠州等九市组成的城市群(city cluster),是国家建设世界级城市群和参与全球竞争的重要空间载体,与美国纽约湾区、旧金山湾区和日本东京湾区比肩的世界四大湾区之一。

粤港澳大湾区建设是习近平总书记亲自谋划、亲自部署、亲自推动的国家战略(national strategy)。

习近平总书记在党的十九大报告中指出:

要支持香港、澳门融入国家发展大局,以粤港澳大湾区建设、粤港澳合作、泛珠三角区域合作等为重点,全面推进内地同香港、澳门互利合作,制定完善便利香港、澳门居民在内地发展的政策措施。
We will continue to support Hong Kong and Macao in integrating their own development into the overall development of the country. We will give priority to the development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, cooperation between Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao, and regional cooperation in the pan-Pearl River Delta, thus fully advancing mutually beneficial cooperation between the mainland and the two regions. We will formulate and improve policies and measures to make it more convenient for people from Hong Kong and Macao to develop careers on the mainland.

韩正表示,要坚持新发展理念,充分发挥粤港澳综合优势(fully utilize the integrated advantages of Guangdong and the two SARs),建设富有活力和国际竞争力的一流湾区和世界级城市群(a vibrant world-class bay area and city cluster with international competitiveness),打造高质量发展的典范。

韩正强调,要以让老百姓得实惠为出发点和落脚点,实施好港澳居民证件便利化、进一步便利港澳居民到内地创业就业(providing better environment for Hong Kong and Macao residents to start businesses in the mainland)、大幅降低粤港澳通信漫游费用(reducing roaming fees by big margins in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao area)等政策措施。要积极吸引和对接全球创新资源,建设“广州-深圳-香港-澳门”科技创新走廊,打造大湾区国际科技创新中心(build an international tech innovation center at the area)。

探月工程 lunar exploration program

Chinese scientists unveiled their latest lunar probe, the Chang'e 4, on Wednesday, saying it will be launched in December on a mission to land on the far side of the moon.
15日,我国科学家揭开了新一代月球探测器嫦娥四号的面纱,并表示嫦娥四号将于12月发射并执行在月球背面着陆的任务。

探月工程(lunar exploration program)嫦娥四号任务月球车(rover)全球征名活动启动仪式15日在京举行,由中国航天科技集团有限公司抓总研制的嫦娥四号着陆器(lander)和月球车外观设计构型首次公开。探月工程嫦娥四号任务计划于今年12月实施,将首次实现人类探测器(probe)在月球背面(far side of the moon)软着陆(soft landing)和巡视勘察(patrol survey)。

嫦娥四号月球车呈长方形盒状,长1.5米,宽1米,高1.1米。肩部有两片可以打开的太阳能电池帆板,腿部则是六个轮状的移动装置。据中国探月工程总设计师吴伟仁介绍,嫦娥四号月球车基本继承了"玉兔号"的外形和状态(largely keep the shape and conditions of its predecessor, Yutu, or Jade Rabbit),但针对月球背面复杂的地形条件、中继通信(relay communication)新的需求和科学目标实际需要(the actual needs of the scientific objectives),作了适应性更改和有效载荷配置(payload configuration)调整。

吴伟仁表示,嫦娥四号月球车总重量约140公斤,将是全球迄今重量最小的月球车。月球车上搭载的测月雷达(lunar penetrating radar)设置了两个不同频段,借助其探测出的数据,研究人员可以绘制出第一幅月球背面剖面图(first geologic cross-section of the moon's far side)。

天价片酬 sky-high remuneration of stars

Three major online movie and television platforms Youku, iQIYI and Tencent along with six major movie and television production companies including Huace Media have issued a statement on curbing the sky-high remuneration of stars.
优酷、爱奇艺和腾讯3家主要在线影视平台以及华策影视等6家主要影视制作公司联合发布声明,抵制明星天价片酬。

天价片酬(sky-high remuneration of stars)之所以饱受指责,主要是演员的收入与影视剧质量不成正比。主要演员的不合理片酬(unreasonable payment of lead actors and actresses)挤压了影视剧的其他制作费用(squeeze the money spent on other production costs),耗费巨资拍摄的影视剧最终成了口碑低劣的烂片(flop)。制作方习惯依靠流量明星来获得好的票房回报,而不是将功夫花在影视剧质量上。

9家公司的这则联合声明再次将明星天价片酬推上娱乐风口。声明为演员片酬设定了上限(stipulate the maximum paychecks actors and actresses can receive)。未来所有演员总片酬不得超过各公司制作的影视剧总预算(overall budget)的40%,主要演员(starring actors and actress)片酬不得超过演员总片酬的70%。这些公司还对单个演员的片酬设限(set salary caps on the remuneration of a single actor or actress),要求其电视剧总片酬(含税)最高不得超过5000万元,单集片酬不得超过100万元。

公费师范生 government-paid teaching students

A regulation has been introduced for government-paid teaching students at six key universities to help improve education equality, especially in central and western regions.
六所重点大学师范生公费教育办法公布,旨在促进教育公平,尤其是中西部地区的教育公平。

《办法》从选拔录取、履约任教、激励措施、条件保障等方面,对师范生公费教育政策予以改进和完善。

一是确立师范生公费教育制度(government-paid education)。《办法》规定,由中央财政承担其在校期间学费、住宿费(tuition fees and accommodation will be paid by the central government)并给予生活费补助(subsidies for daily expenses),通过双向选择等方式切实为每位毕业的公费师范生落实任教学校和岗位。

二是调整履约任教年限(service period)要求。《办法》将公费师范生履约服务期调整为6年。

Those working in urban schools should serve at least one year in rural schools beforehand.
到城镇学校工作的公费师范生,应到农村义务教育学校任教服务至少1年。

三是细化履约管理(management of contract fulfillment)政策。《办法》对公费师范生选拔培养、协议管理、人事招聘、履约就业、工作调动、攻读硕士学位等重点环节做出明确规定。

有志从教并符合条件的非师范专业优秀学生,在入学2年内,可在教育部和学校核定的公费师范生招生计划内转入师范专业(transfer to teaching major),签订协议并由所在学校按相关标准返还学费、住宿费(get tuition fees and accommodation refunded),补发生活费补助。

四是加大落实政策保障(supporting policies)力度。《办法》通过改进招生选拔方式、完善学习激励考核、开展表彰奖励等措施,吸引优秀人才报考公费师范生。

国家根据经济发展水平和财力状况,对公费师范生的生活费补助标准进行动态调整。优秀公费师范生可享受其他非义务性奖学金。鼓励设立公费师范生专项奖学金(special scholarship for government-supported teaching majors)。

校外培训机构 after-school training institutions

China will complete the rectification of all after-school training institutions by the end of this year, addressing areas including giving lessons above normal level, exam-oriented training and increasing student pressure, according to the Ministry of Education (MOE) Thursday.
教育部23日表示,将在今年年底前完成所有校外培训机构的整改工作,治理超纲教学、应试培训以及增加学生负担等问题。

校外培训机构统称为after-school training institutions,其中针对在校课程的“补习班”可以用cram session或者tutoring class表示,而根据孩子们的兴趣爱好开设的“兴趣班”则可以用interest-oriented class表示。

《意见》对校外培训的内容、时间、班次、进度、形式、宣传、收费等都提出了明确要求。

坚决禁止中小学校与校外培训机构联合招生(primary and middle schools are prohibited to launch joint enrollment program in cooperation with after-school training institutions),坚决查处将校外培训机构培训结果与中小学校招生入学挂钩的行为,剪断培训机构和中小学招生的关系。

要求校外培训机构不得聘用中小学在职教师(cram schools are banned from hiring in-service teachers at primary and middle schools),从事语文、数学、英语及物理、化学、生物等学科知识培训的教师必须具有相应教师资格等基本要求。

校外培训机构必须有符合安全条件的固定场所(the institutions must have fixed establishments that meet safety requirements),同一培训时段内生均面积不低于3平方米。培训机构培训时间不得和当地中小学校教学时间相冲突,培训结束时间不得晚于20:30,不得留作业。

培训内容不得超出相应国家课程标准,进度不得超过所在地中小学同期进度(the institutions should not teach ahead of students' school schedules);学科知识培训的内容、班次、招生对象、进度、上课时间等要向所在地县级教育部门备案(submit information on their programs, such as class content, targeted students and class times, to local education authorities)并向社会公布。严禁组织举办中小学生学科类等级考试、竞赛及进行排名。

培训机构不得一次性收取时间跨度超过3个月的费用(the institutions are not allowed to charge one-time fee for classes of more than 3 months),不得在公示的项目和标准外收取其他费用。

顺风车 hitch ride

The Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Public Security and related agencies in Tianjin, where Didi Chuxing is registered, on Sunday summoned senior executives of Didi Chuxing for a face-to-face meeting and ordered the company to rectify problems with its online hitch riding services, enhance security measures and release timely updates of its progress to correct the situation with the public.
8月26日,交通运输部、公安部以及滴滴出行公司注册地天津市的相关部门对该公司高管进行面对面约谈,责令其立即对顺风车业务进行全面整改,千龙国际,加强安全举措,及时向社会公布有关整改情况。

“Summon someone for a meeting”在这里就是“约谈某人”的意思,除此之外,summon还可以表示“(法庭)传唤”,比如,He was summoned to court for traffic violation./He received a court summon for traffic violation.此外,summon还可以表示“鼓起(勇气)、振作(精神)”的意思,常用的搭配是summon the courage to do something(鼓起勇气做某事),比如:It took him three months to summon the courage to tell her that he likes her.(他用了三个月才鼓起勇气向她表白。)

According to local police, a 20-year-old woman went missing on Friday afternoon after hailing an auto from Didi in the city of Wenzhou. The driver was caught by police on Saturday morning, and confessed to rape and murder.
当地警方表示,24日下午,一名20岁的女子在温州从滴滴平台叫了辆顺风车之后失联,25日早晨,司机被警方抓获,并承认了强奸和谋杀行为。

The incident came after a 21-year-old female flight attendant using Didi was murdered by her hitch driver in the central city of Zhengzhou in May.
而就在5月份,一名21岁的空姐在郑州搭乘滴滴顺风车时被司机杀害。

交通运输部部运输服务司司长徐亚华在约谈中指出,短短三个月时间发生两起侵害乘客生命安全的恶性事件,暴露出滴滴出行平台存在的重大经营管理漏洞和安全隐患(great management loopholes and safety perils with Didi),企业主体责任落实不到位,严重威胁人民群众出行安全和合法权益(seriously threatening passengers' safety, rights and interests),社会影响非常恶劣(causing severe negative social impact)。

滴滴公司负责人表示, 千龙娱乐,对此次事件深感自责和愧疚,滴滴公司负有不可推卸的重大责任,并承诺:

一是自8月27日起,在全国范围内下线顺风车业务(suspend its hitch riding service nationwide),重新评估业务模式;

二是9月1日前完成合规化运营工作方案(a plan on improving compliance will be finished by Sept. 1),报送有关部门并接受社会监督;

三是落实安全生产责任制,开展安全隐患自查工作(check for potential safety hazards),完善隐患监察机制,通过线上、线下手段,查找整改存在的问题;

四是整改升级客服体系(the company's customer service system will be upgraded),加大客服团队的人力和资源投入;

五是开拓平台用户紧急情况报警通道(launch a service to allow users to contact the police in case of emergencies),完善配合公安机关证据调取机制(improve the mechanism of providing evidence for the police)。

The head of Didi Hitch and the vice president of customer service have been removed from their positions.
滴滴顺风车业务总经理以及客服部副总裁均被免职。

养老支出 expenditures on caring for the elderly

The draft amendment to the individual income tax law, which was submitted for a second reading at the National People's Congress Standing Committee on Monday, adds special additional deduction for expenditures on caring for the elderly, children's education, continuing education, treatment for serious diseases, as well as housing loan interest and rent.
27日,个人所得税法修正案草案提交全国人大常委会二次审议。草案将赡养老人、子女教育、继续教育、大病医疗、住房贷款利息和住房租金的支出纳入专项附加扣除。

27日在北京召开的十三届全国人大常委会第五次会议对个人所得税法(individual income tax law)修正案草案进行二次审议。二审稿中未对起征点进行修改,维持了一审稿中个税起征点(threshold for personal income tax exemption)调至每年6万元,即每月5000元不变。此外,个税法二审稿也维持了45%的最高档税率(tax rate)。

作为一大亮点,个税法二审稿把赡养老人的支出(expenses for elderly care)纳入到专项附加扣除(special additional deduction)范围,加上此前的子女教育(children's education)支出、继续教育(continuing education)支出、大病医疗(treatment for serious diseases)支出、住房贷款利息和住房租金,共5项专项附加扣除。

个税法二审稿还规定,劳务报酬所得(remuneration for personal services)、稿酬所得(authors' remuneration)、特许权使用费(royalties)所得以收入减除20%的费用后的余额为收入额,其中,稿酬所得的收入额再减按70%计算。二审稿明确了公益慈善事业(philanthropy)捐赠扣除标准,规定个人将其所得对公益慈善事业进行捐赠,捐赠额未超过应纳税所得额(taxable income)30%的部分,可以从其应纳税所得额中扣除(deduction)。

民法典 civil code

8月27日,备受社会关注的民法典(civil code)各分编(草案)提请十三届全国人大常委会第五次会议审议。

The six draft sections, namely provisions on property, contract, personality rights, marriage and family, inheritance, and torts, consist of 1,034 articles.
六个分编草案为物权编、合同编、人格权编、婚姻家庭编、继承编以及侵权责任编,共计1034项条款。

各分编草案在现行民事单行法的基础上增加了一些新规,具体亮点有:

婚姻家庭编:增加离婚冷静期制度(cooling-off period before divorce)

The draft stipulates that a divorce application may be revoked by either side of the couple within the cooling-off period of one month after it is received by the authority.
草案规定了一个月的离婚冷静期,在此期间,任何一方可以向登记机关撤回离婚申请。

Provisions related to family planning in current laws are not included in the draft.
草案中不再保留计划生育的有关内容。

侵权责任编:规定环境损害惩罚性赔偿(punitive compensations for environmental violations)

According to the draft, punitive compensations will be imposed on those who had intentionally violate laws and regulations and damaged the environment.
草案规定侵权人故意违反国家规定损害生态环境的,被侵权人有权请求相应的惩罚性赔偿。

合同编:规定节约资源、减少污染义务(practices of saving resources and reducing pollution)

The draft also requires parties of a contract to follow conventional practices to save resources and reduce pollution with good faith while performing the contract.
草案规定,当事人在合同履行中应当遵循诚信原则,根据交易习惯负有节约资源、减少污染的义务。

人格权编:对禁止性骚扰作出规定(provision on anti-sexual harassment measures)

People who sexually harass others through words or behavior, or by taking advantage of their positions, will face potential civil liabilities if they are sued by their victims.
违背他人意愿,以言语、行动或者利用从属关系等方式对他人实施性骚扰的,受害人可以依法请求行为人承担民事责任。

Companies should also take measures to prevent sexual harassment in the workplace, as well as provide reporting channels for victims and punishment for offenders, the draft added.
用人单位应当在工作场所采取合理的预防、投诉、处置等措施,预防和制止性骚扰行为。

物权编:专章规定居住权(right to housing)

The right to use of residential housing land should be automatically renewed on its expiration.
住宅建设用地使用权期间届满的,自动续期。

继承编:增加打印、录像等新遗嘱形式(new forms of will)

New forms of are included in the draft, including printed copy and video will.
草案增加了打印、录像等新的遗嘱形式。

信息泄露 data leak

A post by Darknet appeared on Tuesday selling the private information of 130 million people, who are alleged clients of the Huazhu Group's hotels. The information sells for 8 Bitcoin, equivalent to $54,400 or 520 Monero, The Beijing News reported on Tuesday.
据《新京报》28日报道,当日有人在暗网出售华住集团旗下酒店客户私人信息,涉及1.3亿条。信息被标价为8比特币或520门罗币(约合37万元人民币)。

“信息、数据泄露”可以用data/information leak、data breach或者data spill表示,任何个人未经授权复制、传输、查阅、盗窃或者使用敏感、受保护或者机密的信息(sensitive, protected or confidential data is copied, transmitted, viewed, stolen or used by an individual unauthorized to do so)都属于信息泄露。

常见的盗用信息手段包括“拖库”和“撞库”。

拖库(drag)本来是数据库领域的术语,指从数据库中导出数据。在黑客攻击领域则指黑客非法入侵网站服务器后导出其数据库的行为。

撞库(dictionary attack)是黑客通过收集互联网已泄露的用户和密码信息,生成对应的字典表,尝试批量登录其他网站后,得到一系列可以登录的用户。因为很多用户在不同网站使用的账号密码大多是相同的,因此黑客可以通过获取用户在A网站的账户从而尝试登录B网站。

从卖家发布内容看,数据包含华住旗下汉庭酒店、美爵、禧玥、漫心、诺富特、美居、CitiGo、桔子、全季、星程、宜必思、怡莱、海友等酒店。

泄露的信息(leaked information)包括华住官网注册资料(registration information)、酒店入住登记的身份信息以及酒店开房记录(record of hotel stay),住客的姓名、手机号、邮箱、身份证号、登录账号密码、家庭地址、生日、同房间关联号、卡号、入住时间、离开时间、房间号、消费金额等详细数据。

8月28日下午,华住集团发布声明表示,针对这一事件及引发的恶劣舆论影响,集团已在内部迅速开展核查。

The company said police are investigating the alleged information leak and has hired professionals to determine if the "relevant private information" came from the company.
华住集团表示,警方已就此事展开调查,该公司已经聘请了专业人员对“相关个人信息”是否来源于华住集团进行核实。

电竞 esports

China participated in three of the six video game titles at the Asian Games, which featured esports as a demonstration sport for the first time.
本届亚运会首次将电竞纳入表演项目,共设6个游戏比赛项目,中国队参加了其中的3个项目。

2018年5月,亚洲奥林匹克理事会(the Olympic Council of Asia)批准《英雄联盟(League of Legends)》、《Arena of Valor》、《皇室战争(Clash Royale)》、《炉石传说(Hearthstone)》、《实况足球(Pro Evolution Soccer)》、《星际争霸2(Starcraft II)》六个电子体育项目(electronic sports, 简称esports)成为第18届雅加达亚运会表演项目。

所谓的“表演项目(demonstration sports/exhibition event)”指的是为了宣传推广某个运动项目而在奥运会、亚运会等重大体育赛事(sporting events)中进行展示的体育项目。与之相对的就是“正式比赛项目”,可以用official sports或者medal events表示。表演项目虽然也有奖牌,但并不计入官方代表团的奖牌数,所以,正式比赛项目才会用medal events表示。

中国电竞队此次参加的三个项目分别是:《英雄联盟(League of Legends)》、《Arena of Valor》和《皇室战争(Clash Royale)》,其中《Arena of Valor》是《王者荣耀(Honor of Kings)》的海外版,中国队在8月26日该项目的决赛中已经获得一枚金牌。

(中国日报网英语点津)